Isomap Out-Of-Sample Extension For Noisy Time Series Data
Hamid Dadkhahi, Marco F. Duarte, Benjamin Marlin

This paper proposes an out-of-sample extension framework for a global manifold learning algorithm (Isomap) that uses temporal information in out-of-sample points in order to make the embedding more robust to noise and artifacts. Given a set of noise-free training data and its embedding, the proposed framework extends the embedding for a noisy time series. This is achieved by adding a spatio-temporal compactness term to the optimization objective of the embedding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first method for out-of-sample extension of manifold embeddings that leverages timing information available for the extension set. Experimental results demonstrate that our out-of-sample extension algorithm renders a more robust and accurate embedding of sequentially ordered image data in the presence of various noise and artifacts when compared to other timing-aware embeddings.